Essential Research leadership ratings

Essential’s latest leadership ratings find Scott Morrison continuing to struggle, despite being back to level pegging on preferred prime minister.

The Guardian reports on yet another fortnightly Essential Research poll with no voting intention numbers, but we does at least get the monthly leadership ratings. These show Scott Morrison down a point on approval to 39% and steady on disapproval at 52%, after the previous poll respectively had him down five and up nine. Anthony Albanese is respectively down two to 41% and up one to 31%, and he has lost his 39-36 lead as preferred prime minister, with the two now tied on 36%. The BludgerTrack trends on the sidebar have now been updated with these results.

Further questions on bushfire recovery, sports rorts and coronavirus don’t seem to have turned up anything too mindblowing, but the publication of the full report may turn up something hopefully later today.

UPDATE: Full report here. The most interesting of the supplementary findings for mine relate to the budget surplus, the consistent theme of which is that respondents aren’t that fussed about it: 79% agree spending on bushfire recovery is more important than maintaining it, with 11% disagreeing; 65% say it would be understandable if the coronavirus impact meant it wasn’t achieved, with 18% disagreeing; and 57% agree it was wrong for the government to discuss the surplus in the present tense before the election, with 24% disagreeing.

Author: William Bowe

William Bowe is a Perth-based election analyst and occasional teacher of political science. His blog, The Poll Bludger, has existed in one form or another since 2004, and is one of the most heavily trafficked websites on Australian politics.

1,911 comments on “Essential Research leadership ratings”

  1. Step 1 to reaching National ZeroHero status in Australia would be for all Greens to act on the Bandt ZeroHero Pledge.

    Step2 to reaching National ZeroHero status in Australia would to halt all inbound migration.
    Those two steps alone would save over a hundred million tons of CO2 emissions over the next decade.

  2. Socrates @ #301 Tuesday, February 11th, 2020 – 2:18 pm

    Rex
    “We can’t just eliminate cars. Sure we can improve PT and we should.”

    Nobody is suggesting eliminating cars. The point is that the overwhelming evidence is that building roads like that does not eliminate traffic congestion. See “The Fundamental Law of Road Congestion: Evidence from US Cities”. https://www.aeaweb.org/articles?id=10.1257/aer.101.6.2616

    Cities with good PT still have cars. Though they tend to have far more one car households than two car. That also saves residents a lot of money.

    Well, FWIW, the business case mentions congestion and travel times.

    North East Link Business Case released
    Published: 27 May 2018

    The North East Link will create 10,300 jobs during construction and deliver $1.30 to the Victorian economy for every dollar invested.

    The business case for the North East Link, released today, shows that the project will give workers in Melbourne’s north east access to 56,000 new job opportunities and deliver $12.5 billion in Gross State Product to our economy.

    The project’s benefit to cost ratio increases to $1.40 for every dollar spent when wider economic benefits, such as better freight connections, are considered.

    Once built, the missing link between the Eastern Freeway and the M80 Ring Road will take 15,000 trucks off local roads and cut travel times by up to 30 minutes.

    Upgrades to the Eastern Freeway will streamline traffic, reduce congestion and reduce travel times, and the new Doncaster Busway will deliver 30 percent travel time savings for buses.

    Most importantly, the project will give local roads back to local people – taking 32,000 vehicles per day off Greensborough Road, 14,000 off Fitzsimons Lane, 9,000 off Rosanna Road and 8,000 of Manningham Road.

    Business case studies also found there would be about 100 fewer crashes every year on local roads in the north east.

    Consultation has been underway since the project was first announced and community input has informed designs.

    The business case has been submitted to Infrastructure Australia today.
    https://northeastlink.vic.gov.au/news/north-east-link-business-case-released

    https://northeastlink.vic.gov.au/publications/businesscase

  3. I’ll repost this from last night..

    Simon Katich

    HSR is a competitor to airtravel (as well as compliments it). It was in China when I was there – and told it still is. I know people travelling in Europe and Japan that treat it like an alternative option to airtravel. Not to take over airtravel… just an alternative.

    I have clearly misunderstood the direction of HSR in Australia. If it isnt going to be along any air corridors then arent you limiting it to improving a couple of commuting routes in Sydney (already serviced by trains and freeways), maybe Brisbane – Gold Coast and an airport link?

    You are not getting my juices flowing. It is up there with the southern sydney freight line for headline grabbing.

    Let me clarify this. We shouldn’t be building HSR in this country if the sole justification is replacement of air travel. HSR can compete with air travel and in some cases overseas it does so quite well. But it lives in an ecosystem where its competing with a lot of budget carriers. Also it does best on the very short haul routes.

    Another thing not often understood by modellers is that the little details matters. Where individual airports are, what their airport to city link looks like and so on. Sometimes HSR competes purely on the fact that it usually gets you closer to the city.

    Now having said this, the best use for HSR in Australia is quite definitely not replacement of air travel. Where HSR delivers value is where it allows you to do things that were not previously possible. In other words, where its means you can get from A to B a lot faster.

    HSR Sydney to Melbourne would deliver a transit time similar to that of air travel. In other words, you’re spending a lot of money (tens of billions) to simply replace one means of transport with another. And you’re doing so in competition with an industry that has a lot of sunk capital.

    Whereas if you stack HSR up against driving Newcastle to Sydney, you’re not just providing an alternate mode of transport, you’re enabling people to do things that couldn’t have previously done. We’re talking 1 to 1.5 hours total end to end time versus 2 to 3 hours.

    Another thing people don’t often realise is that air travel accounts for a small minority of actual trips. Sydney to Melbourne (dominated by air) is about ten million trips per year – where a trip is a one way journey. That’s half of a return journey per person per year over the combined population.

    Whereas the number of people who travel between north of the Hawkesbury (Lower Hunter, Newcastle, Lake Macquarie and Central Coast) and south of the Hawkesbury (Sydney) by car is over 30 million trips per year. Add to that another 11 million trips by train. Likewise there are about 30 million trips per year by car between Wollongong and various parts of Sydney. These kinds of trips dwarf intercapital air travel in volume. Now throw in HSR and the total travel market can double – because these shorter trips have a higher propensity for induced demand.

    Now, does that get your juices flowing?

    Speaking of commuting routes. What we are talking about isn’t strictly speaking commuting (which is by definition, travel to work). Its actually travel for many purposes – shopping, education, health care, entertainment, social, doing business etc. Lets look at what a HSR core network can accomplish..

    The present day Sydney commuter rail network is slow. We have journeys that routinely take over an hour. This is why we have congestion on Sydney’s motorways. Its because the public transport network is too slow. There’s a well known result in transport theory known as the Downs-Thompson paradox. Simply stated it says that the average speed of the road network is equivalent to the average speed of the equivalent and competing public transport journey. Its quite intuitive if you think about it. If its faster to drive, you’ll use the car. If more people use their car the road will congest. It will congest up to the point where its about equivalent to taking public transport.

    There’s a flip side to this few mention. That is the speed of the road network is determined by the speed of the public transport network. Make the public transport network faster and you take cars off roads until the road network speeds up to match.

    Ipso.. the best way to improve congestion on Sydney’s roads (and this benefits freight and commerce) is to make the rail network faster.. So, how do you do that? You build HSR into its core.

    Presently it takes 45 minutes (at best) to commute between Hornsby and the CBD. With a HSR network in place that will take 15 minutes. Similarly it takes just over an hour to get from Campbelltown to the CBD. With a HSR network that takes 20 minutes. You could also reach Parramatta in 11 minutes and Penrith in 30 minutes. I have a niece who works near Penrith and now lives in Miranda. She drives. A HSR network would mean she would take the train instead.

    I’m not going to go on for pages here, but the fact is a HSR network revolutionises public transport outcomes over the whole corridor – from Newcastle to Wollongong. And it enables further reforms to other rail lines in Sydney and it takes pressure off Sydney’s motorway network – notably the M5 and to some extent the M2 and M7. We also would not need the full-blown M9 outer sydney orbital, nor any further extension of the M6. Billions of savings in congestion and construction right there.

    Juices flowing nicely? Good. Point is our existing transport network isn’t working well. The rail network is abysmally slow and as a result we are paying too much for road pavements.

    As for Brisbane to the Gold Coast, the cost of not doing HSR is extremely high. Between here and 2065 we will see an additional 30 million or so trips (on an annual basis) between Brisbane and the Gold Coast. That amounts to an additional 4-5 lanes of motorway. Guess how much that costs..

    ————

    Part of the reason I reposted that is because it talks about why motorways will always congest and why faat public transport matters.

    There is always another potential motorway user. Build a new motorway and use expands to fill the new road. That’s Transurbans reason for existence. The most important point I’m making is that speed of the road network is governed by the speed of the public transport network. Faster trains mean fewer cars – the road network decongests, traffic speeds up, and equilibrium asserts itself.

  4. Shellbell

    So not an activist HC. Kiefel says as much in her minority judgement…

    “Section 51(xix) is not expressed to be subject to any prohibition, limitation or exception respecting Aboriginal persons. The task of this Court, in interpreting a provision of the Constitution, is to expound its text and where necessary to ascertain what is implied in it. Needless to say, questions of constitutional interpretation cannot depend on what the Court perceives to be a desirable policy15 regarding the subject of who should be aliens or the desirability of Aboriginal non- citizens continuing to reside in Australia.

    The point presently to be made is that in the absence of a relevant constitutional prohibition or exception, express or implied, it is not a proper function of a court to limit the method of exercise of legislative power16. The question then is whether the plaintiffs can point to an implication by the accepted methods of constitutional interpretation.“

  5. The world has never seen anything like it.

    Over five months, bushfires along the south-east coast of Australia have blackened an area bigger than Ireland. They have taken 33 lives, destroyed thousands of homes, shrouded cities in toxic smoke and devastated the country’s unique wildlife.

    https://www.theguardian.com/environment/ng-interactive/2020/feb/11/counting-the-cost-of-australias-summer-of-dread

    While QT is on let’s just remind ourselves the destruction some of these terrorists have contributed to.

  6. Rex
    “My preference is for Govt to fully fund new road infrastructure and toll it to pay for.”

    And, too bad, so sad if poor workers who are forced to live a long way away from their jobs, where the cheaper housing is, and travel on these toll roads every day to get to their jobs are the ones who pay a disproportionate amount of their income to travel on them.

    What a peculiarly inner city elitist tone deaf opinion to hold.

  7. C@tmomma @ #311 Tuesday, February 11th, 2020 – 2:46 pm

    Rex
    “My preference is for Govt to fully fund new road infrastructure and toll it to pay for.”

    And, too bad, so sad if poor workers who are forced to live a long way away from their jobs, where the cheaper housing is, and travel on these toll roads every day to get to their jobs are the ones who pay a disproportionate amount of their income to travel on them.

    What a peculiarly inner city elitist tone deaf opinion to hold.

    Burn me.

  8. Tony Wright on Barnaby – going for total destruction if required.

    Anyone expressing surprise at Barnaby Joyce’s use of a warfare tactic known as decapitation hasn’t been listening.

    Almost a year ago, Barnaby went on radio to declare, “If there was a spill and the position’s vacant, I am the elected deputy prime minister of Australia, so I’d have no guilt at all in standing …”

    Alas for guilt-free Barnaby, he didn’t quite have the numbers when, last week, the challenge came to pass.

    But for this fellow who considers himself the “elected deputy prime minister of Australia” and whose desire for destruction of all in his path to regaining this exalted position is about as subtle as a grizzly bear with a mess of porcupine quills in its muzzle, it was merely a first roar.

    The decapitation strike awaits.

    This is a military tactic favoured by those who don’t pussy-foot around.

    It is defined as “achieving strategic paralysis by targeting political leadership, command and control”.

    https://www.theage.com.au/politics/federal/barnaby-s-strategy-hold-my-beer-i-m-coming-for-your-head-20200211-p53zqe.html

  9. The strange going-ons in Erfurt has had a dramatic result

    Last week the CDU combined with extreme right AfD to displace The Left’s Bodo Rumelow as Minister-President in the east German state of Thuringia.
    This was a direct affront to Federal CDU policy and broke all the understandings of modern German politics and the resultant storm meant that the replacement government only lasted 24 hours before fresh elections were called.

    Overnight, Annegret Kramp-Karrenbauer, Merkel’s nominated successor admitted she had little authority in the CDU and resigned from politics.

  10. Rex
    “My preference is for Govt to fully fund new road infrastructure and toll it to pay for.”

    Tsk tsk. Bernie wouldn’t approve of that. Bad Rex!

  11. Kakuru @ #315 Tuesday, February 11th, 2020 – 2:00 pm

    Rex
    “My preference is for Govt to fully fund new road infrastructure and toll it to pay for.”

    Tsk tsk. Bernie wouldn’t approve of that. Bad Rex!

    Yeah, what’s this ‘user pays’ crap? Sounds like capitalism.

    Build the roads cost into the price of rego. Everyone who wants to drive contributes the same amount. That’s how you socialize!

  12. Looks like Trump’s claim of a “booming economy” is somewhat overblown – or else he hates public servants.

    President Donald Trump on Monday justified a smaller-than-anticipated proposed pay raise for civilian federal workers by citing “national emergency or serious economic conditions,” despite his frequent statements that the nation’s economy is booming.

    Trump proposed that pay raises for civilian federal workers be limited to 1% in 2021 in a bid to “maintain efforts to put our Nation on a fiscally sustainable course.” He described a pay increase above 1% as “inappropriate.”

    https://edition.cnn.com/2020/02/10/politics/trump-federal-employee-pay-adjustments/index.html

  13. ar

    Everyone who wants to drive contributes the same amount. That’s how you socialize!

    Get every bustard making ‘use’ of the road . Which means all the businesses benefiting from the presence and flow of the traffic. Can’t have any leaners can we ? 🙂

  14. If this comes to fruition you can eliminate all the fossil fuels, including nuclear and knock on the head any talk of further research into fusion reactors as well:

    Solar panels, true to their name, don’t technically work at night. But a California researcher claims he’s found a way to keep them generating power long after the sun sets.

    Jeremy Munday, a professor in electrical and computer engineering at the University of California – Davis, is working on a panel prototype he says could do just that.

    His research recently appeared in the journal ACS Photonics.

    Here’s how it could work: While solar panels are cold objects pointed at the very hot and bright sun to absorb light and generate power, Munday’s proposal would work in reverse: His thermoradiative cells would heat up and point at the night sky, a much cooler object. The object that is hot compared to its surroundings will radiate heat as infrared light.

    “A regular solar cell generates power by absorbing sunlight, which causes a voltage to appear across the device and for current to flow. In these new devices, light is instead emitted and the current and voltage go in the opposite direction, but you still generate power,” Munday said in a statement. “You have to use different materials, but the physics is the same.”

    https://edition.cnn.com/2020/02/05/us/solar-panels-work-at-night-scn-trnd/index.html

  15. C@t

    One point about commuters with long commutes. What actually happens is as follows.

    We build a road. People soon discover that the road allows them to drive somewhere 10s of km away. So they make decisions about where they work and live based on having a road.

    Only, everyone else does so too. Pretty soon the road congests – so its a self limiting process. Roads only have a very limited capacity – a couple of thousand people per hour per lane.

    So roads don’t grant everyone freedom to commute over 10s of kms. What they do is select for the fraction of people willing to tolerate the time it takes to dtive as congestion then creates an equilibrium and deters further use.

    Roads don’t confer universal mobility and freedom of choice because they are very expensive per person-kilometer. You can’t build enough (major) roads. Not just not enough money but not enough physical space.

    We need good roads – modern, safe, well designed. But its fast public transport that confers freedom to the masses to be able to live at a distance and its fast public transport that takes enough cars off roads so they can have value for freight and commerce (and yes that includes tradies).

  16. Cud Chewer
    “But its fast public transport that confers freedom to the masses to be able to live at a distance and its fast public transport that takes enough cars off roads so they can have value for freight and commerce (and yes that includes tradies”

    I agree absolutely! And as you say, FAST public transport. Not some dickie light rail, that takes an eternity to get from A to B.

  17. That’s a very, what came first, the chicken or the egg, scenario, Cud. So, can I just say, as the mother of a child who is looking for work, that the job, wherever it may be located, is coming before where a road is and whether there is a job at the end of it.

  18. a r
    “Build the roads cost into the price of rego. Everyone who wants to drive contributes the same amount. That’s how you socialize!”

    I can see some people liking this idea, but it’s not for me. I already pay enough rego. I pay more in rego and insurance than my car is worth. As the saying goes, I have a full tank of petrol, so my car is worth about $60.

  19. Cud Chewer

    With rapid population growth the road’s period of “making it easier ” is even further reduced in length. Increased pop density would also cut it back . I wonder how many of these big projects are basically at capacity by the time they are fully open ?

  20. “But its fast public transport that confers freedom to the masses to be able to live at a distance”

    Agreed. Relating that back to some of the property discussion yesterday, I was frustrated to hear that the Upfield train line near a house I was interested in is bottlenecked by a section of single track with no foreseeable plans for duplication, meaning congested trains with half the frequency at best

  21. C@t I agree we often don’t get a choice.

    But at the end of the day, roads are a very expensive way to move people. And when congestion occurrs it always forces people in a negative direction. The way to fix congestion is to provide a better alternative to driving.

    My eldest neice is a teacher. She got a job near Penrith so she found a flat in Leonay. The she got married and compromised on a flat in Dulwich Hill. Then with a growing family an opportunity came up for a house in Miranda. She still drives to Penrith and its a bitch of a commute. But its proven hard to find a new school.

    With a faster rail network she’d happily use the train.

  22. Cat
    “And, too bad, so sad if poor workers who are forced to live a long way away from their jobs, where the cheaper housing is, and travel on these toll roads every day to get to their jobs are the ones who pay a disproportionate amount of their income to travel on them.”

    Interesting point, and agreed. In NZ they have to do social impact studies on new transport projects that includes socio-economic analysis of the population affected. We do not. The sole pressure from state treasuries is revenue. Squeezing outer suburban residents with few transport options to pay tolls is not a social good.

    This is another reason why building rail lines to outer suburbs is better. You can manage the fare levels to assist the outer suburbs. Whereas when a toll road is run to maximise revenue it hurts whether it is publicly or privately owned.

  23. Freedom of movement is a fundamental freedom. CC, in that context you put me onto a transport blogger a few weeks back, but I’ve forgotten his name and blog. (I’m on a different PC.) Some of the folks here might enjoy his stuff.

  24. Maybe rego costs could be built into the tax everyone pays when they buy fuel. Then the more that a person uses the road the more rego they effectively would pay.

  25. Cud,
    We often compare the times it takes for a car, or to use public transport, to get to a desired destination. Depending on where we want to go, one or other is quicker. Also depending on the time of day, especially for myself, as public transport to certain areas, at certain times of the day or night, can be a hairy experience requiring nerves of steel if you are a vulnerable looking little old lady. So that is another consideration to factor into the Public Transport VS Car equation. 🙂

  26. Buses and trains could have a flat fare system like the buses in London.Doesnt matter how far you travel the fare is the same.

    “Though operated by multiple private firms, all of London’s 8,000 buses sport the fire-red color scheme and follow the same flat-fare system. Paying cash for a single journey costs £2, regardless of distance traveled.”

  27. This is another reason why building rail lines to outer suburbs is better. You can manage the fare levels to assist the outer suburbs. Whereas when a toll road is run to maximise revenue it hurts whether it is publicly or privately owned.

    Not meaning to rain on the train parade again but another factor that needs to be taken into consideration in the Trains VS Cars debate is noise. A train going past your back door makes a LOT more noise than a car, especially cars these days and looking into the future of cars, which is that they will be virtually silent EVs. Just sayin’.

  28. In these new devices, light is instead emitted and the current and voltage go in the opposite direction, but you still generate power

    Wait, what? Something has to provide the current/voltage in the opposite direction, surely?

    And harvesting energy by radiating away other energy seems like it would violate the whole “energy is neither created nor destroyed” thing.

  29. bonza,

    Apparently the main problem is lack of city loop capacity rather than the single track.

    https://www.theage.com.au/politics/victoria/sluggish-upfield-s-service-boost-still-seven-years-away-20181106-p50e8u.html

    A key problem causing infrequent Upfield services is a lack of available space in the City Loop.

    This is set to be solved when the Metro Tunnel takes Sunbury trains out of the northern tunnel, which is currently shared with Upfield and Craigieburn trains.

    Once the tunnel is built, Upfield trains are expected to run every ten minutes during peak hour, but Mr Watson bemoaned: “that’s seven years away”.

    Metro Trains is also calling for a solution to the city’s northern rail lines before the $11 billion Metro Tunnel is built.

  30. Paddy Manning
    @gpaddymanning
    ·
    13m
    We have just had a terrifying choking summer of unprecedented bushfires and our national parliament responds with a hysterical debate about whether or not to build a new coal-fired power station. Literally insane. We are being played.

  31. C@tmomma @ #340 Tuesday, February 11th, 2020 – 3:39 pm

    This is another reason why building rail lines to outer suburbs is better. You can manage the fare levels to assist the outer suburbs. Whereas when a toll road is run to maximise revenue it hurts whether it is publicly or privately owned.

    Not meaning to rain on the train parade again but another factor that needs to be taken into consideration in the Trains VS Cars debate is noise. A train going past your back door makes a LOT more noise than a car, especially cars these days and looking into the future of cars, which is that they will be virtually silent EVs. Just sayin’.

    That kills that stone dead then. 🙁

  32. ‘Build the roads cost into the price of rego. Everyone who wants to drive contributes the same amount. That’s how you socialize!’

    So the little old lady who has a car in her garage which she basically never uses pays the same amount as a delivery driver who uses it for his business – and can tax deduct the rego.

  33. Cud
    “But at the end of the day, roads are a very expensive way to move people.”

    So true. Consider these recent projects:
    Rail
    Sydney Metro NW 36km for $6.4 B = $178 million/km
    Sydney SE LRT 13km for $2.8 B = $215 million/km
    Canberra LRT 13km for $o.7 B = $55 million/km
    Road
    Sydney Westconnex Stage1 33km for $21 B = $636 million/km
    Melbourne NE Link 26km for $16 B = $615 million/km

    See the pattern? The big road projects are 2 to 3 times the unit cost of the rail projects, even expensive rail projects in Sydney.

  34. a r @ #341 Tuesday, February 11th, 2020 – 2:40 pm

    In these new devices, light is instead emitted and the current and voltage go in the opposite direction, but you still generate power

    Wait, what? Something has to provide the current/voltage in the opposite direction, surely?

    And harvesting energy by radiating away other energy seems like it would violate the whole “energy is neither created nor destroyed” thing.

    I had the same reaction, but as stated, the physics is the same. When the radiation (photon) is emitted that causes a change in the cell which they claim generates a voltage. It’s the same but in reverse as when a photon is absorbed. In terms of energy balance maybe it helps if we think of the cell as being hot, having been heated by a day’s worth of sunlight, and it is now losing it’s heat and generating electrical energy. In spirit and maybe by analogy too, it is like a hydro plant losing it’s water after rain.

  35. Bill Palmers thoughts on Democratic nominee – SO FAR :

    Who’s winning the Democratic 2020 primary race? Who’s ahead? Who’s in trouble? Who’s got momentum? Most importantly, who’s the frontrunner? I’m going to make it all simple for you: the “frontrunner” is defined as whoever leads the national polling averages at any given time. Not by who is ahead in one outlier poll. Not by who wins Iowa or New Hampshire. Not by who has the biggest rallies. Not by who all your friends are voting for. National polling averages. Don’t believe me?

    In the past forty years, we’ve only had one instance where the Democratic and Republican nominees have both won Iowa and New Hampshire (2004). The media only pretends those two states pick the nominee because it makes for a ratings-friendly narrative.

    Some of you are pulling your hair out trying to figure out how I’m wrong, so you don’t have to accept that the media is jerking you around by pretending these first two states matter. That’s fine. But in such case you’ll always be surprised at who ends up being the nominee.

    I’ll put it another way. Bernie Sanders or Pete Buttigieg won Iowa. Bernie or Pete will win New Hampshire. One or both of them will then get labeled the “frontrunner.” But let’s say that Joe Biden then goes on to win Nevada and South Carolina (he’s favored in both). Suddenly Biden has won half of the first four states, and the media is talking about Biden’s “miracle” comeback, when he was in first place in the national polls the entire time!

    Super Tuesday determines everything. If one candidate dominates Super Tuesday in clear fashion, they’ll end up being the nominee. By that time we’ll have seen every voting demographic weigh in, and the results will be an accurate sampling of the remaining states. If two candidates dominate about equally on Super Tuesday, the two of them will then face a long primary battle where they try to eke out the nomination.

    https://www.palmerreport.com/analysis/its-not-that-difficult-to-figure-out-whos-going-to-be-the-democratic-nominee/25105/

    The following states hold their Democratic Primary Elections on Super Tuesday (March 3, 2020):

    Alabama
    Arkansas
    California
    Colorado
    Maine
    Massachusetts
    Minnesota
    North Carolina
    Oklahoma
    Tennessee
    Texas
    Utah
    Vermont
    Virginia

    Also:

    American Samoa
    Democrats Abroad

  36. a r

    They’re talking about radiating thermal energy towards the cold night sky.

    Top of device gets colder. Bottom (heated by ground) gets warmer. That temperature difference contains energy

    They’re only of use for tiny amounts of power.

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