Leadership ratings revisited

Picking apart personal approval and preferred prime minister ratings in the Morrison era.

BludgerTrack’s leadership approval and preferred prime ministership readings have been in limbo since last August’s leadership change, since it was necessary to accumulate a certain amount of data before Morrison-era trends could usefully be generated. I have now finally got around to doing something about this, the results of which can be found through the link below:

This exercise has to contend with the very substantial idiosyncrasies of the various pollsters, of which three produce data that can meaningfully be compared with each other: Newspoll, Essential and Ipsos (there are also a handful of small-sample Morgan results in the mix). This is done by calculating a trend exclusively from Newspoll, determining the other pollsters’ average deviations from that trend, and adjusting their results accordingly. For whatever reason, Newspoll appears to be a particularly tough marker, which means the other pollsters are adjusted very substantially downwards on approval and upwards on disapproval:

Ipsos Essential
PM approval -11.0% -3.1%
PM disapproval +8.9% +8.6%
OL approval -5.5% -1.0%
OL disapproval +2.4% +9.5%
PM preferred -4.8% -0.3%

“PM preferred” refers to the size of the Prime Minister’s lead over the Opposition Leader in preferred prime minister polling – so Ipsos, for example, records relatively large leads for the Prime Minister in comparison with Newspoll, and is adjusted accordingly.

The job of charting trendlines through the spread of results is complicated by some notable outliers at around the time of the leadership transition. Malcolm Turnbull’s critics on the right are very keen on an Ipsos poll conducted over the last week of his prime ministership, as it is the only evidence polling has to offer that the Coalition’s present dismal position is not entirely down to the avoidable disaster of Turnbull’s removal. After a period of fairly consistent 51-49 results from all pollsters, this poll found Labor’s lead blowing out to 55-45 – and Malcolm Turnbull down nine on approval and up ten on disapproval. However, the BludgerTrack trend is not overly responsive to single poll results, so it records no sudden decline at the end of Turnbull’s tenure – only the levelling off an improving trend going back to late 2017.

Immediately after the leadership change, two pollsters posed questions on preferred prime minister, though not leadership approval. These produced very different results – a 39-33 lead for Bill Shorten from Newspoll, and a 39-29 lead for Scott Morrison from Essential. Newspoll is given a heavier weighting than Essential, so the trend follows its lead in finding Shorten with a very short-lived lead immediately after the leadership change. However, none of the fifteen poll results have replicated a lead for Shorten, so it is entirely possible that the Newspoll result was an outlier and the lead never existed in the first place.

The bigger picture is that Scott Morrison started well on net approval, but has now settled in roughly where Malcolm Turnbull was in his final months; that he is under-performing Turnbull on preferred prime minister; and that Bill Shorten’s net rating, while still not great, has been on a steady upward path since the leadership change.

Author: William Bowe

William Bowe is a Perth-based election analyst and occasional teacher of political science. His blog, The Poll Bludger, has existed in one form or another since 2004, and is one of the most heavily trafficked websites on Australian politics.

2,082 comments on “Leadership ratings revisited”

  1. Zoidlord says:
    Thursday, January 10, 2019 at 6:17 pm
    @Barney

    Looking for a job is a job itself.

    That is so true. I used to volunteer at an organisation that assisted indigenous youth to find a job. I do not really know why I am not still doing it. I used to tell them that they did have a job, it was finding a job.

  2. billie says:
    Thursday, January 10, 2019 at 6:18 pm
    “If Uncle Ben hires a German graduate over an Australian graduate the taxpayer has wasted their investment in the 17 years of education of the Australian graduate.

    HECS covers the cost of educating teachers, lawyers and Arts graduates but doesn’t cover the cost of training doctors, dentists and engineers”

    It may be balanced out by the Australian trained engineer working in Germany to avoid paying their HECS bill. We really need to start thinking in global terms rather than perpetuating nationalism. I do not mean that as a criticism, we are all at the early stages of that part of evolution. My first wife still tells me that I need to grow up. I seem to have got stuck in teenage optimism.

  3. That stupid fucking cutter bar, detachable, attachable thing on glad wrap is driving me insane.
    To think, some peanut in marketing probably got the gold Logie equivalent for that.
    #rantover #firstworldproblems

  4. Greensborough Growler says:
    Thursday, January 10, 2019 at 7:43 pm
    ratsak @ #1033 Thursday, January 10th, 2019 – 7:32 pm

    “A mandate is a couple of guys going out to dinner.

    In politics the only thing that counts are the things you can actually count – votes. You only hear galahs screeching about mandates when they don’t have the votes and aren’t likely to get them any time soon.

    You can win the argument, I’ll take the numbers.”

    That was Eddy Ward was it not?

  5. Confessions says:
    Thursday, January 10, 2019 at 8:07 pm
    A March 2 election would take place on a long weekend in WA. Would that matter?

    The local Labor election night party in 1972 happened in my back yard. I was living just north of Perth in the seat of Moore, We knew the result an hour before polls closed from phone calls from the east. In WA we had a big swing to us in 1969 and it swung back a bit in 1972. We had the strange situation of watching some WA seats going back to the dark side while celebrating the election of a great government. To answer your question, not very much.

  6. “That stupid fucking cutter bar, detachable, attachable thing on glad wrap is driving me insane.”

    And that’s not the only first world problem.
    ‘Fitted’ sheets don’t.
    ‘Resealable’ packages aren’t.
    And ‘flushable’ wipes aren’t, as our owners corporation found to its cost (north of $10k) when the sewer main blocked.

  7. Henry says:
    Thursday, January 10, 2019 at 9:04 pm
    “That stupid fucking cutter bar, detachable, attachable thing on glad wrap is driving me insane.
    To think, some peanut in marketing probably got the gold Logie equivalent for that.
    #rantover #firstworldproblems”

    We live in the first world so we have first world problems. I know how you feel and still have the scars. My solution was to throw the useless piece of shit in the bin.

  8. C@tmomma says:
    Thursday, January 10, 2019 at 8:57 pm
    “This Madonna King article looks like it came in after BK’s Dawn Patrol today and I don’t think anyone else has linked to it yet (apologies if they have):

    Scott Morrison’s government is in free fall.

    And it’s beyond imagination to conceive that it can claw its way back to the Treasury benches, post election.”

    Top put the article in some context. Madonna King is married to an ex murdoch editor. She used to be on Qld ABC and was clearly a part of the Tory cheer squad.

  9. Personal Responsibility, Acting Ethically and in Good Faith:

    https://maps.finance.gov.au/Guidance/Personal_Responsibility_Acting_Ethically_and_in_Good_Faith#Summary%20of%20Obligations

    Questions: Did Anning abide by these obligations when staying on the public purse at his brother’s hotel in Babinda, and can he justify ‘the more than $19,000 to have his family travel with him on trips between July and September 2018’? – I shouldn’t think so. This man’s a disgrace. Morrison must bring him to heel.

  10. Warren Mundine covering himself with the stupid on Facebook this evening:

    “On top of the human suffering, these shark attacks are terrible for Australia’s economy. Especially for regional Australia which doesn’t have the privilege of shark nets that urban beaches enjoy. Another attack by green activists on regional Australia and its economy #auspol
    https://www.skynews.com.au/details/_5987718944001”

  11. I want to apologies for the burst of comments over the last hour or so. I have been occupied by urgent matters for a while and have just managed to get back to the important.

  12. peter Stanton @ #1065 Thursday, January 10th, 2019 – 8:40 pm

    C@tmomma says:
    Thursday, January 10, 2019 at 8:57 pm
    “This Madonna King article looks like it came in after BK’s Dawn Patrol today and I don’t think anyone else has linked to it yet (apologies if they have):

    Scott Morrison’s government is in free fall.

    And it’s beyond imagination to conceive that it can claw its way back to the Treasury benches, post election.”

    Top put the article in some context. Madonna King is married to an ex murdoch editor. She used to be on Qld ABC and was clearly a part of the Tory cheer squad.

    Yes, although I’d call her a Liberal Wet which is a endangered species in Howard’s broad church. So she will write some realistic pieces, more in sorrow than hope.

  13. https://www.abc.net.au/news/2019-01-10/citizenship-doubt-liberal-mp-ben-morton-discovers-irish-heritage/10705292

    The discovery, made while going through old family records over Christmas, contradicts his declaration from 2017 that both maternal grandparents were born in the United Kingdom.

    A letter from the Irish embassy received this week confirmed that Mr Morton is not an Irish citizen, and Mr Morton has said he has “never been an Irish or British citizen, only ever Australian”.

  14. Andrew_Earlwood @ #1067 Thursday, January 10th, 2019 – 9:41 pm

    Warren Mundine covering himself with the stupid on Facebook this evening:

    “On top of the human suffering, these shark attacks are terrible for Australia’s economy. Especially for regional Australia which doesn’t have the privilege of shark nets that urban beaches enjoy. Another attack by green activists on regional Australia and its economy #auspol
    https://www.skynews.com.au/details/_5987718944001”

    I happened upon Sky News one night before Xmas when I was minding a dog. They were advertising a show called ‘Mundine Means Business’. The promo had Indigenous girls working in the Mines being interviewed by Wazza. I couldn’t help but feel saddened by the sight. One lot ripping up country for whitefella profit, the other a turncoat character in it for profit for himself.

  15. Steve777 @ #1061 Thursday, January 10th, 2019 – 5:25 pm

    “That stupid fucking cutter bar, detachable, attachable thing on glad wrap is driving me insane.”

    And that’s not the only first world problem.
    ‘Fitted’ sheets don’t.
    ‘Resealable’ packages aren’t.
    And ‘flushable’ wipes aren’t, as our owners corporation found to its cost (north of $10k) when the sewer main blocked.

    The only things flushable in these parts are what comes out of your body.

    There’s a rubbish bin for the rest! 🙂

  16. A water management Royal Commission has to be established by an incoming Labor Government. What’s happened is the result of blithering incompetence, corruption or both. They have to be exposed.

  17. Zoidlord @ #1071 Thursday, January 10th, 2019 – 10:10 pm

    Peter Hannam
    ‏Verified account @p_hannam
    7h7 hours ago

    NSW Labor demands water management inquiry after massive fish kill https://www.smh.com.au/environment/conservation/nsw-labor-demands-water-management-inquiry-after-massive-fish-kill-20190110-p50qlb.html … via @smh

    ———————

    And Gladys is just not up to the task – this gobblydegook from a Govt facing an election speaks for itself:

    The NSW premier, Gladys Berejiklian, sought to assure residents of the state’s far west the government was working to find a solution.

    Her comments come a day after the minister for primary industries and water, Niall Blair, was criticised for bypassing a large gathering of people waiting to ask him questions on a visit to Menindee.

    We’re working through it as fast as we can to see what solutions we can contribute towards and I commend him [Blair] for being on the ground,” she said.

    Blair said this week he had met with residents in Menindee but bypassed the gathering on the town’s main boat ramp on security advice.

    Reassurance my arse. It smacks of guilt, denial, incompetence, and directionless-ness.

    https://www.theguardian.com/australia-news/2019/jan/10/darling-river-fish-kill-cotton-industry-says-it-wont-be-the-whipping-boy-for-disaster

  18. #weatheronPB. My least favourite Sydney weather today, choking marine layer cloud. The temperature stuck at or near 21 degrees and all day and all night, so sweaty night, cool, dreary day. Humid, not a glimpse of sky or sun yet no rain, just annoying drizzle.

    Some thunderstorms did enter the Western suburbs from beyond the marine layer in the evening but fizzled out before getting here. We did get a bit of a light show from distant storms out to sea.

  19. Cat
    “C@tmomma says:
    Thursday, January 10, 2019 at 8:57 pm
    “This Madonna King article looks like it came in after BK’s Dawn Patrol today and I don’t think anyone else has linked to it yet (apologies if they have):

    Scott Morrison’s government is in free fall.”

    I can’t speak for other policy areas but in transport and infrastructure this article is correct. I haven’t heard so much as a rumour about new policies or projects in transport coming out of anyone I know in government. Total silence. I can only assume that all hopes are being pinned on, and money saved for, a giant tax cut the Libs imagine will buy them office once again.

  20. The L/NP believe their big corporate mates pay all the tax after doing all the heavy lifting.
    What can you do after cutting spending for welfare, climate research, reef funding, health, education, workers incomes etc.
    What about big tax cuts for all. Starting with companies and working down. If it takes a while for them to get to you, no worries, trickle down will help you. Then, if like Trump, you never get to the workers, blame them for the economy not doing well enough at allow cuts for the many.
    That’s how you transfer the wealth of the nation from the working class to the likes of Murdoch.
    Good riddance Scummo

  21. Well Christmas and New Year are largely over. It’s about time our glorious LNP ‘government’ got going again. I expect yet another cluster f#*kup by next Tuesday…

  22. “…What can you do after cutting spending for welfare, climate research, reef funding, health, education, workers incomes etc… “
    A question journalists should be asking. What will the Coalition be cutting next year if they win? We know the “surplus” is bogus, we know they’ll be throwing money at anyone or anything likely to attract votes, we know that post-election Coalition budgets are always slash and burn. And we know all the nasties in the 2014 Budget and the IPA Wishlist are waiting in the wings.

    So what are they going to cut? What are they going to privatise? Who are they going to attack? Not big business mates, that’s for sure.

  23. Zoidlord @ #801 Thursday, January 10th, 2019 – 9:10 pm

    Peter Hannam
    ‏Verified account @p_hannam
    7h7 hours ago

    NSW Labor demands water management inquiry after massive fish kill https://www.smh.com.au/environment/conservation/nsw-labor-demands-water-management-inquiry-after-massive-fish-kill-20190110-p50qlb.html … via @smh

    Some of the people I play tennis with, who are quite a bit older and definitely not Labor supporters, were quite livid over the fish-kill. In particular the video that was shared on Facebook and Twitter. The issue seems to transcend normal party lines.

  24. No, the journalists and commentators will be telling us Shorten has questions to answer.

    Here’s today’s example.

    The productivity commission report on superannuation has some pie in the Sky ideas about boosting retirement savings for people starting work now.

    The government is pretty mum on the report so we get this

    https://www.theage.com.au/politics/federal/3-8-billion-super-reforms-face-labor-roadblock-20190110-p50qk8.html

    Labor roadblock?

    Spare me.

  25. Yes, yes. Condemning Nazism is just hypocritical virtue signaling. As true today as it was 70+ years ago when all those Lefty hypocritical virtue signalers traveled halfway around the world to condemn Nazism with their tanks, planes, and guns.

  26. No doubt Miranda would call a pile-on to a Labor member or Green attending a rally to protest against – well, anything, where do you start – climate inaction, the Murray Darling mess, low wages – rank Right hypocrisy.

  27. Virtue signalling. We’ll see a lot of it in the coming 2019 instalment of the annual Australia Day Wars.

    Right wing “virtue signalling”
    – wrapping yourself in the flag
    – banging on about “family values”
    – devotion to the armed services
    – banging on about “Judeo Christian Values”
    – climate denial
    – Condemning “political correctness” – the left version, not your own (see previous points).
    – condemning unions
    – demonising those on welfare
    – etc. etc. etc…

  28. Mavis Smith says:
    Thursday, January 10, 2019 at 11:44 pm
    The orange moron storms out of meeting with Nancy & Chuck:

    I spent a fair bit of my life negotiating. From my late teens involved in protests negotiating with the police to my early twenties as the president of a ratepayers organisation to my union days and then in business. One of the first things I learnt was you never walk out unless you do not want a solution to the issue. Trump claims to be the great negotiator. Now that he has walked out on negotiations that he has to find a solution to what is he going to do next. The answer is obvious, he has to walk back in. What a dickhead.

  29. Steve777@12:16am
    – banging on about “family values”

    I don’t think so
    1. after 3 Nationals mps either cheated or separated from their wives.
    2. After the PM wears 2 left shoes in a family shoot( i.e trying to use his family for political purposes)
    3. After MP is caught having sexual relationship with his staff.

  30. Good morning Dawn Patrollers.

    The SMH editorial exhorts the States to resist pressure for a public register of child sex abusers.
    https://www.smh.com.au/national/states-must-resist-pressure-for-public-register-of-child-sex-abusers-20190110-p50qjs.html
    Jess Irvine explains why Labor must not cave in to super industry scare campaign.
    https://www.smh.com.au/business/banking-and-finance/why-labor-must-not-cave-in-to-super-industry-scare-campaign-20190110-p50qnu.html
    But Eryk Bagshaw tells us that reforms that could give new workers up to an extra $500,000 by retirement are set to face resistance under a Labor government after the party criticised a key recommendation of a landmark three-year review into Australia’s $2.8 trillion superannuation system.
    https://www.smh.com.au/politics/federal/3-8-billion-super-reforms-face-labor-roadblock-20190110-p50qk8.html
    Shane Wright examines the phenomenon of one third of the Senate having been wiped out since the last election.
    https://www.smh.com.au/politics/federal/churn-factor-one-third-of-the-senate-has-been-wiped-out-since-the-last-election-20190110-p50qkx.html
    Unions will use a seven-day strike next week to intensify pressure over the ‘exploitation’ of labour-hire workers.
    https://outline.com/sqdgN4
    Tony Featherstone wonders how long it will be before Australia has a duopoly of food ordering and delivery companies and they exploit their market power to lift prices.
    https://www.smh.com.au/business/small-business/food-delivery-power-will-become-harder-to-swallow-20190109-p50qf3.html
    Nicole Hasham shows us a stunning chart revealing Australia’s record-breaking run of rising temperatures.
    https://www.smh.com.au/politics/federal/the-stunning-chart-revealing-australia-s-record-breaking-run-of-rising-temperatures-20190110-p50qk1.html
    Peter Hannam asks what will happen when the ‘last resort’ on the Darling River dries out. It is an awful situation.
    https://www.smh.com.au/environment/conservation/what-happens-when-the-last-resort-on-the-darling-river-dries-out-20190110-p50qo3.html
    Scientists and irrigators have turned on each other over the deaths of tens of thousands of fish in the Murray-Darling basin.
    https://www.outline.com/3JcKZC
    The cotton industry says it is not to blame for the mass deaths of hundreds of thousands of fish in the Darling River and is tired of being a “whipping boy” for problems associated with the drought.
    https://www.theguardian.com/australia-news/2019/jan/10/darling-river-fish-kill-cotton-industry-says-it-wont-be-the-whipping-boy-for-disaster
    The locals are sheeting the blame on Barnaby Joyce.
    https://outline.com/8tJswj
    Key sections of the Great Ocean Road are at risk of being washed away, raising safety fears and calls for the Andrews government to reroute parts of the world-recognised tourist road.
    https://www.theage.com.au/national/victoria/great-ocean-road-at-risk-from-surging-sea-20190110-p50qjb.html
    Michael Koziol writes about the farcical situation within the NSW Liberal party as it interferes in the preselection process.
    https://www.smh.com.au/politics/nsw/this-has-become-a-farce-top-liberal-demands-preselection-intervention-20190110-p50qix.html
    Wind turbine supplier Vestas says the state-led, piecemeal approach on energy policy will compromise the efficiency of renewables investment.
    https://www.outline.com/yZKHHL
    The somewhat intellectually challenged matt Canavan goes in to bat for oil exploration in the Great Australian Bight.
    https://outline.com/CRdf2b
    The senior bureaucrat who reviewed building regulation for the New South Wales government has condemned the lack of action on his 2015 report, warning the defects in the Opal Tower at Sydney’s Olympic Park “are likely just the tip of the iceberg”.
    https://www.theguardian.com/australia-news/2019/jan/11/former-official-condemns-nsw-government-for-failure-to-reform-building-rules
    In a rather concerning contribution architecture lecturer Geoff Hanmer writes that there are lessons to be drawn from the cracks that appeared in Sydney’s Opal Tower, but they extend beyond building certification.
    https://theconversation.com/there-are-lessons-to-be-drawn-from-the-cracks-that-appeared-in-sydneys-opal-tower-but-they-extend-beyond-building-certification-109428
    Much has been said and will continue to be said about the power that Rupert Murdoch wields in our very concentrated media landscape. It is a landscape that continues to change and the ACCC just released the preliminary report on Digital Platforms.
    https://independentaustralia.net/politics/politics-display/the-politics-of-media-power,12261
    Stephen Koukoulas predicts the RBA will cut interest rates in March.
    https://thekouk.com/item/663-a-march-interest-rate-cut-from-the-rba.html
    Sex offender registries don’t prevent re-offending (and vigilante justice is real).
    https://theconversation.com/sex-offender-registries-dont-prevent-re-offending-and-vigilante-justice-is-real-109573
    Australia’s parliaments must enforce compensation to survivors of child sexual abuse. Revelations by The Australian that only 28 abuse victims have been compensated under the $4 billion redress scheme, despite 2335 people applying, because key states and institutions have been slow to commit, are incredible.
    https://outline.com/qGaJSX
    The New South Wales police minister, Troy Grant, has apologised for comments criticising a magistrate over the sentencing of former Adelaide archbishop Philip Wilson.
    https://www.theguardian.com/australia-news/2019/jan/11/police-minister-apologises-for-criticising-judge-over-philip-wilson-sentence
    This is a good effort! The ABC admits it has underpaid up to 2500 casual staff over six years.
    https://www.smh.com.au/politics/federal/abc-admits-it-has-underpaid-up-to-2500-casual-staff-over-six-years-20190110-p50qk5.html
    Kevin Rudd has claimed to have “key evidence” media mogul Rupert Murdoch killed off Labor’s National Broadband Network.
    https://thenewdaily.com.au/news/national/2019/01/10/rupert-murdoch-nbn-kevin-rudd/
    Rod Myer tells us why the economic picture looks troubling after years of good times.
    https://thenewdaily.com.au/money/finance-news/2019/01/09/australian-economy-2019-prediction/
    He’s been president a week – and already the fat-right Bolsonaro is damaging Brazil.
    https://www.theguardian.com/commentisfree/2019/jan/10/jair-bolsonaro-brazil-minorities-rainforest
    Bloomberg says Trump’s decision to abruptly storm out of a meeting with congressional leaders on Wednesday shocked some on Capitol Hill. But those who have done business with him recognized it as one of his trademark negotiating tactics.
    https://www.smh.com.au/world/north-america/for-donald-trump-storming-out-of-a-meeting-is-a-signature-ploy-20190110-p50qpe.html
    Michael Fullilove writes that Trump is always one temper tantrum from disaster.
    https://www.smh.com.au/world/north-america/the-ineffable-hulk-trump-is-always-one-temper-tantrum-from-disaster-20190110-p50qka.html
    The Washington Post explains the problems of the Chines economy and what they might men for the West.
    https://www.smh.com.au/business/the-economy/the-one-china-export-the-world-doesn-t-want-20190110-p50qk7.html
    Trump has reiterated that he may declare a national emergency if Congress does not meet his demand for billions of dollars to construct a wall along the US-Mexico frontier.
    https://www.smh.com.au/world/north-america/trump-warns-again-of-possible-border-wall-national-emergency-20190111-p50qpp.html
    Robert Reich writes that Trump is using the government as a bargaining chip – like a dictator would.
    https://www.theguardian.com/commentisfree/2019/jan/10/trump-government-shutdown-democracy-power-dictatorship
    And Trump has said he will scrap his trip to the Davos annual gathering of global financial elites later this month because of the government shutdown.
    https://outline.com/9d6vze
    The robots making jaws drop at the Consumer Electronics Show 2019 in Las Vegas.
    https://thenewdaily.com.au/life/tech/2019/01/10/robots-ces-2019/

    Cartoon Corner

    David Pope and a panicky Dutton.

    Matt Golding’s contribution for the day.





    Cathy Wilcox on water distribution Barnaby-style.

    Mark David also serves it up to Barnaby.

    And he gives us Morrison’s brush with PhotoShop.

    Peter Broelman turns the table on scatterbrain Hanson.

    Jon Kudelka has created a special fish dish.
    https://cdn.newsapi.com.au/image/v1/bdffff2c669dc98dde7c4a3bf486476d

    From the US




  31. https://www.vox.com/energy-and-environment/2019/1/7/18172275/supreme-court-exxon-climate-change-massachusetts?utm_source=tw&utm_medium=tweet&utm_campaign=Climate

    “The Supreme Court on Monday issued a significant ruling for ongoing legal battles around climate change by declining to hear oil giant Exxon Mobil’s appeal in its suit with the state of Massachusetts. In the appeal, the company was attempting to block the release of records of its knowledge of how burning fossil fuels changes the climate.”

  32. Prototype for Trump’s steel ‘barrier’ easily cut during testing along border

    President Donald Trump’s proposed wall along the U.S.-Mexico border may not be as impenetrable as he wants his supporters to believe.

    NBC News reports that a recent Department of Homeland Security test of a prototype steel wall conducted by Marine Corps experts showed that it could be cut through with a saw.

    “Testing by DHS in late 2017 showed all eight prototypes, including the steel slats, were vulnerable to breaching, according to an internal February 2018 U.S. Customs and Border Protection report,” writes NBC News.

    https://www.rawstory.com/2019/01/prototype-trumps-steel-barrier-easily-cut-testing-along-border/

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